This study was carried out within Plan Bleu in a context of developing the use of legal tools
with the aim of better achieving the objectives of the Barcelona Convention. The real environmental obligation is a relatively new tool in French law: it emanates from Law No. 2016-1087 of August 8, 2016 for the reconquest of biodiversity, nature and landscapes. With this law, the legislator has given itself the mission of meeting certain strong environmental objectives of protection of biodiversity, preservation of sensitive species and spaces and societal transformation in this regard.